The baby has to be supported with oxygen if the baby is going to have a respiratory distress. If the saturation is more than 90 to 95%, we can wait, the baby might not require oxygen. But if the saturation, that is the oxygen levels are going to be shown by the gadgets, if it is less than 90%, the baby requires some sort of support for the oxygen, the oxygen can be given by various methods. So we give ED box. Through a box oxygen is delivered and the baby breathes by themselves. That is one method, even given for term babies or bigger babies or it is given by nasal cannulas. The oxygen is in a minimal flow of 1 to 2 ml of oxygen is given by nasal cannulas. For small premature babies, more so for babies less than 34c weeks of gestation. So the cause of this fast breathing and oxygen dependency is because of a respiratory distress syndrome. What you mean by a respiratory distress syndrome is an immaturity of the lungs or a pneumonia. So they besides the oxygen, they require some amount of pressure, along with oxygen. So various devices are available. Either we have a Continuous Positive Airway Pressure device, CPAP machines are there, as well as ventilators where a tube is inserted into the tracahea and the machines gives the inspiratory breath as well as the expiratory breath for the baby along with oxygen, or we say HFNC Heated Humidified High Flow Nasal Cannula, where more than 3 litres of oxygen are given through nasal prongs after heating the air and adding water vapour into that air, and our goal is to maintain the saturation upto 90 to 95%. We don’t want anything below 90, we don’t want anything above 95.S So the oxygen can be delivered, ,It has to be good oxygen, nasal prongs, by CPAP or a ventilator and we titrate the percentage of oxygen for a CPAP machine and a ventilator, we can titrate how much oxygen the baby requires and you can give it. Normally atmospheric air contains 20% oxygen. We start from 21, 25, 30, to achieve a saturation of 90 to 95% for the term babies.
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